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A Journey of Ten Thousand Miles – Frances Galloway

(Baretto Junior 1850)

by CJ Eddington


At fifteen years of age Ann Stewart[a] also known as Frances Galloway was convicted of theft from Mr Crawford, spirit dealer in High Street, Glasgow. She was sentenced in January 1850 to seven years transportation. It was her third conviction for theft. She was living in Havannah Street, Glasgow walking distance to Mr Crawford’s house in High Street.[1]

By 1770, Glasgow had become the largest linen manufacturer in Britain – but tastes had changed and there was a move to cotton cloth. After 1850 spinning declined in importance but power-loom weaving of fancy muslins and high-quality shirtings continued to expand up to the First World War.[2] A number of the inhabitants of Havannah Street in the 1851 Scotland census are employed in the textile industries – muslin weaver, shawl fringer, stream loom weaver and muslin clipper.[3]

No suitable baptismal registration has been found for Stewart but her age at conviction and death gives a birth year of 1835. At the time of her conviction Stewart was 15 years old and a flax worker, but she had also worked as a country servant and nurse maid.[4]

Wages for women in factories the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries in Britain were less than that of men doing the same job.[5] In addition, Stewart was able to read but not write. Prior to the 1872 Education Act schooling was not compulsory and relied on charity schools and Sunday schools. Some were free others required a small payment.[6] So most children only received the equivalent of a primary school education. Her lack of education combined with her gender meant she never earned enough money.

To make extra money Stewart stole household items and pawned them. This crime looks like an established routine. Stewart, Ann McGurk, James Mitchell [b] and William Park [c] all teenagers housebreak and steal wearing apparel and other household items from Mr Crawford in High Street, on Monday 12 November 1849 at eight o’clock at night. Mrs Noble, a former employee of the Crawfords, points out the house. Later the goods are taken to Mrs Inglis, their fence, in Shuttle Street,[d] who takes some of the goods to the pawn brokers.

Archibald McDougall Sergeant of Central District of the Glasgow police establishment states

Ann McGurk, Ann Stewart or Galloway, James Mitchell having been habite(sic) and repeat thieves for the last eighteen months.’ [7]

Due to the number of defendants and witnesses the court case papers are extensive. Ann McGurk is 18 years old and probably the ringleader. McGurk, Stewart, Park and Mitchell are all sentenced to seven years transportation. Convict records can be found for the first three, but no suitable documents can be found for Mitchell. McGurk’s behaviour in Van Diemen’s Land (VDL) following her transportation suggests she never really settled down.[e][8] Park last appears in official records with his conditional pardon in 1856.[9] Although there is a William Parks of the right age who dies of typhoid in 1861 in Tasmania it is uncertain if it is the same man.[10]

Stewart[f] arrives in VDL in August 1850 aboard the Baretto Junior after a voyage of 103 days at sea.[11] She was one of over 2000 convicts to be sent to VDL in 1850s.[12] She is described as 4’11¼” with dark blue eyes and brown hair. Her convict record names her family – father James, brothers Thomas (in the army), Daniel, James, Joseph (convict) and sister Jane (at native place).[13] Except for Joseph it is not clear what surname this family is using.

Stewart’s brother Joseph Galloway (aka Gallacher) aged 20 was also transported to Van Diemen’s Land in 1853 [14] on the Oriental Queen.[g]

Two years after her arrival in VDL Stewart and Arthur Anderson marry on 16 August 1852 in Hobart.[15] Her age is given as 21 years but it is more likely to be 17 years. And by 26 July 1853 a male child is born to them in Hobart [16] – as yet unnamed but believed to be Arthur Joseph Anderson also known as Arthur Ernest Anderson.

Between 1852 and 1854 Stewart has various employers including her husband Anderson and working at the Cascades Female Factory, Ross Female Factory and Launceston Female Factory.[17] It is interesting that she in the Launceston FF on 25 March 1853 just prior to birth of her son in July 1853 and she in the Ross FF on 25 August 1853 just after the birth.

Nothing more is heard of Ann Stewart after she is free by servitude on 14 January1857.[18] It appears that after the breakdown of her marriage to Arthur Anderson she used the name Frances Galloway – and no more is heard of Ann Stewart.

No single document unpicks the subsequent family relationships, but a close examination of the details on registrations for births, deaths and marriages; family notices in newspapers and DNA matches provide some plausible connections.

The first time Frances Galloway appears in the Tasmanian records is the 1862 birth registration of her son, Thomas William Thompson Anderson on 15 July 1862.[19]

Thomas Anderson, a sailor is the father and Frances Anderson formerly Gallaway is the mother. The informant is Arthur Joseph Anderson, brother, of Campbell St Hobart. The father being Thomas Anderson is a problem. Registered 12 August 1862.

Then another son, John, is born on 29 February 1864, father Thomas Anderson – sailor, mother Frances Anderson formerly Gallagher, and informant Arthur Anderson – brother Campbell Street. Registered 4 April 1864.[20]

Subsequently a daughter, Sarah Ann Thomson, is born to Thomas Thomson, a farm labourer and Frances Thomson formerly Galloway on 6 February 1867.[21] The informant is Frances Thomson, mother of Murray St Hobart, who makes her mark, as she is illiterate. The name change from Thom(p)son to Anderson on the birth records requires explanation; but Frances Galloway is named as the mother on this later birth registration.

Here is a possible scenario – Arthur Joseph Anderson (son of Frances Galloway) as a nine and then 11-year-old is asked by his mother to go up the street to the Registry Office and register the births of his two brothers. He is told the name of the baby – in 1862 Thomas William Thompson; Arthur not realising that Thompson is the surname of child rather than another given name adds Anderson, as Anderson is both his and his mother’s surname.

In 1864 Arthur is again ask to register John’s birth and gives Anderson as the surname as that is both his and his mother’s surname.

When Sarah Ann Thom(p)son is born on 6 February 1867 Galloway herself registers the birth and Thomas Thomson is the father. No marriage for her and Thomas Thompson has ever been found.

The marriage of Thomas William Thompson to Georgina Ann Haines in October 1889 provides the next clue that he might in fact be the same person as Thomas William Thompson Anderson[22]. Tasmanian marriage certificates of the time don’t have parents’ names but there was a family notice in the newspaper naming Thomas Thompson as Thomas William Thompson’s father.[23]

In addition, Thomas is aged 26 at his marriage giving a birth year of 1863 and finally Sarah Ann Eddington neé Thompson and John Thomas Eddington are witnesses.[h] A third witness was John Thompson – the other brother perhaps? So, on balance it has been accepted that Thomas William Thompson Anderson and Thomas William Thompson are the same person.

Finally, Sarah Eddington submits a death notice for William Thompson, son of Thomas and Frances Thompson on 23 July 1910.[24]

Prior to Thompson’s death in 1879 there are two incidents where Frances Thompson’s name appears in the newspapers. In 1872 a box is left at her house and the owner has 14 days to pick it up.

And in 1878/79 Frances is a landlady and is called as a witness to larceny from the nurses’ quarters. Ellen Hand the defendant was a resident in Frances’ house. Thomas Thompson is still alive in March 1879, but it is unclear where he was living.[25]

The last mention of Frances is her death in 1885. She is from Scotland and only 50 years old when she died at home in Murray St, Hobart of kidney disease. Frances was buried in Hobart Public Cemetery and she was born in Glasgow, Scotland.

Frances was survived by her four children and eventually 15 grandchildren.

© CJ Eddington 2023


[a] Also known as Ann Anderson, Frances Galloway, Gallway, Gallagher, Thomson, Thompson, Meikle and Euphemia Nicols. Her brother Joseph used Gallacher.

[b] 16 years old, Cabinet Wright, King Street Calton. When charged he denied the knowing anything of it. Said he was at his mother’s 202 Broomelaw Street. No convict found.

[c] 18 Years old, Tobacco pipe maker, Broomielaw Street. Denies charge. Said he was at the Hays Public House in with James Mitchell. Convict VDL Lady Montague 9 Dec 1852.

[d] Shuttle St runs north-south to the west of High St. See Figure 1.

[e] Sentences of 6 months for larceny, 6 months for larceny, 2 months for being on the premises for unlawful purposes and 14 days for being drunk and incapacitated.

[f] Ann McGurk is also onboard.

[g] After 66 years of convict transportation the Oriental Queen was the fourth last convict ship to the Eastern States – Western Australia accepted convicts until 1863.

[h] Sarah Ann Thompson and John Thomas Eddington had married on 13 February 1886.



[1] Criminal record Ann Stewart - Crown Office Precognition 1850. Precognition against Margaret Noble, William Park, George Grainger, Ann Stewart, Ann McGurk, James Mitchell. National Records of Scotland. NRS reference AD14/50/77; Trial papers relating to Ann McGurk, Ann Stewart, James Mitchell, William Park, George Grainger, Margaret Noble, Alexander Clark 14 January 1850 Glasgow 9Second Court). NRS reference JC26/1850/162. Copy held by CJ Eddington.

[2] The Glasgow story https://www.theglasgowstory.com/story/?id=TGSDE [accessed 22 Mar 2023]

[3] 1851 Scotland Census, Havannah Street, College, Glasgow, Lanarkshire. Find My Past. [accessed 3 April 2023]

[4] Ann Stewart, Convict Record, Tasmanian Archive and Heritage Office, Hobart, CON 41/1/27.

[5] Joyce Burnette, (1997). T. S. Ashton Prize: Winning Essay: An Investigation of the Female-Male Wage Gap during the Industrial Revolution in Britain. The Economic History Review, 50(2), 257–281. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2599060 [accessed 26 Mar 2023]

[6] Peter Hillis, The Glasgow Story Learning and Beliefs – Schools. 2004. https://www.theglasgowstory.com/story/?id=TGSCC03 [accessed 26 Mar 2023]

[7]Criminal record Ann Stewart, Precognition, Page 89.

[8] Ann Gilbert or McGurk, Female House of Correction, Hobart - Description Lists of Prisoners, Tasmanian Archive and Heritage Office, Hobart, CON 105/1/1 p3, p52, p179; CON 105/1/2 p38.

[9] William Park, Convict record, Tasmanian Archive and Heritage Office, Hobart, CON 33/1/1/110, 217.

[10] Death registration of William Parks, 7 June 1861, Tasmanian Archive and Heritage Office, RGD35/1/30, 495.

[11] Ann Stewart, Convict record.

[12] Bateson, C., Convict ships 1788-1868. Aust Ed 1974. NSW. p394.

[13] Ann Stewart, Convict record, Tasmanian Archives and Heritage Office, CON15-1-6, 216. https://stors.tas.gov.au/CON15-1-6$init=CON15-1-6P216 [accessed 1 Apr 2023]

[14] Joseph Galloway, Convict record, Tasmanian Archives and Heritage Office, CON33/1/114, 127 https://stors.tas.gov.au/CON33-1-114$init=CON33-1-114p127 [accessed 1 Apr 2023]

[15] Marriage Certificate of Arthur Anderson and Ann Stewart, married 16 August 1852, Tasmanian Archive and Heritage Office, RGD37/1/11, 379.

[16] Birth Registration of unnamed son of Arthur Anderson and Ann Stewart, 26 July 1853, Tasmanian Archive and Heritage Office, RGD33/1/4/, 2513.

[17] Ann Stewart, Convict record.

[18] Ann Stewart, Convict record.

[19] Birth Registration of Thomas William Thompson Anderson, 15 July 1862, Tasmanian Archive and Heritage Office, RGD33/1/8, 5370.

[20] Birth Registration of John Anderson, 4 April 1864, Tasmanian Archive and Heritage Office, RGD33/1/8, 6736.

[21] Birth Registration of Sarah Ann Thompson, 6 February 1867, Tasmanian Archive and Heritage Office, RGD33/1/9, 9049.

[22] Marriage Certificate of William Thomas Thompson and Georgina Anne Haines, married 15 October 1889, Tasmanian Archive and Heritage Office, RGD37/1/48, 798.

[23] Family notices, Mercury, 26 Oct 1889, p.4.

[24] Family notices, Mercury, 23 Jul 1910, p.1.

[25] Burglary Hobart Mercury 5 March 1879, p.3.


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FCRC Seminar: Sunday 5 May 2024:  Call for papers

Topic: Freedom: Time served, moving on

This seminar will focus on the pathways to freedom for convict women and will explore the lives they led once emancipated.

Possible topics may include:

  • Pathways to freedom.
  • Emancipation – prosperity or poverty? How the emancipated women lived out the rest of their lives. Individual stories.
  • Exploring subsets – return to their home country, moving to another colony or country; marriage; non-marriage; business women; relying on the State to survive.

If you would like to present a 20-minute paper at the seminar, please forward an abstract for consideration to This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. by 20 October 2023. The abstract should outline your intended topic, the points you will highlight and the sources you will be using to inform your paper.


Call for submissions for the next Convict Women's Press book: Convict Motherhood

Cut-off date for submissions extended to 14 October.

You are invited to submit a chapter for the next CWP book, provisionally titled Convict Motherhood. It will cover all aspects of this fascinating topic:

  • women with children in Britain prior to conviction
  • those who brought children with them
  • childbirth on board ship
  • the loss of children and mothers
  • children born under sentence at convict institutions
  • children born elsewhere
  • children born once women free again

How did women cope with the stresses of the convict system? How did they experience childbirth and child rearing? How many did/could not have children? How did these experiences affect children?

We are looking for papers under 2000 words, about individual convict women, groups of women or more abstract discussions of the topic.

If you are interested, please submit a 100-word abstract by 14 October to This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. 



The 13th BIENNIAL CONFERENCE of the George Town & District Historical Society Inc.


This conference will be held in the Performing Arts Centre at the Port Dalrymple School with registrations from 8.45 am ready for a 9.15 am start and finishing around 4 pm. Registration required.

Website: www.gtdhs.com


The Marita Bardenhagen Memorial Award

The Marita Bardenhagen Memorial Award for Local History is a biennial prize acknowledging outstanding original research in the field of local history with significant Tasmanian content.  Applications are now open for the 2023 Award and will close on 30 September.

To obtain an entry form, please contact This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. or phone 0409 140 657.

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Other Updates:

Voyages: The Voyage of the Tasmania 1844, including a map of the voyage, by Dee Hoole (14/09/2023)

Convict Ships  Martin Luther 1852, Surgeon's Journal, transcription courtesy of Colleen Arulappu (10/07/2023)

Books, Theses & Reports - Convict Orphans by Lucy Frost. (14/06/2023)

Books, Theses & Reports - Convict Lives:  Young girls transported to Van Diemen's Land edited by Alison Alexander (4/05/2023)

Freedoms - The Path to Freedom. Page updated and edited by Helen Menard 1/05/2023, to include  'Freedom v emancipation'.

Featured in Publications - A list of VDL convict women featured in publications (compiled and updated by Ros Escott April 2023).

Pre-Transportation: The British Justice System in the 18th & 19th Centuries -  A new page for the website, contributed by Helen Menard 18/03/2023.

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