Recent Additions to Convict Stories
These stories have been submitted by members of the Female Convicts Research Centre, researchers and descendants of female convicts. We hope the selected stories help to put the women's lives in perspective and give the readers some understanding of the factors that might have affected their circumstances and the decisions they made.
The stories provide some historical background to shine a light on the lives of their subjects either before or after transportation. This contextual material could include prevailing social conditions, political ideology or geographical history relevant to the existence of the particular convict women and their families.
All stories are subject to copyright.
Submit a story
We welcome all stories about female convicts. However, in order to protect the integrity of this site and the quality of information provided, it is necessary to maintain certain standards of research and writing.
Writers are encouraged to incorporate into their stories, where appropriate, some historical background to assist in shining a light on the lives of their subjects either before or after transportation.
All such material should be factually based and referenced accordingly. As a general rule, stories should be limited to approximately 2500 words or less.
If you would like to contribute an interesting female convict story, please complete a submission form and ask about our style guide. Stories will be selected for publication on the basis of historical interest and quality of research and writing.
For those writers who also have photos they would like to share, database storage limitations prevent these being incorporated into the stories. However, please complete an image and document submission form for separate storage of photos in the database.
All stories are subject to copyright.
Elizabeth & Henry, 1848
By Helen Ménard
As Lydia, ‘young and somewhat pretty looking’, wandered the streets of Manchester engaging in petty theft and traipsing in and out gaol, did she ever contemplate orchestrating a voyage to the antipodes in the hope of a better life? Could she have imagined that such a life would involve marrying a fellow convict and, ultimately, mixing with the glitterati of Melbourne society where her daughter, Lillie, proprietor of a successful photographic gallery, married a ‘basso profundo’ with the Italian Opera Company – described as ‘one of the handsomest men in Melbourne’ and many years her junior!
How much of her daughter’s high profile life Lydia shared is unclear but, over time, she loaned her daughter substantial amounts of money which, unpaid, resulted in legal action between them. Surely, this must have created some tension in their relationship! In fact, Lillie was no stranger to litigation – both as a plaintiff and a defendant. However, Lillie’s life cascaded downhill dramatically following a disastrous accident, after which she appeared to seek solace in alcohol, her marriage dissolved, and her high profile husband moved to Sydney. Yet, despite everything, it seems Lydia and her daughter lived together in Carlton, Victoria in their final years and died in the same house within two years of each other.
A Journey of Ten Thousand Miles – Frances Galloway
(Baretto Junior 1850)
by CJ Eddington
At fifteen years of age Ann Stewart[a] also known as Frances Galloway was convicted of theft from Mr Crawford, spirit dealer in High Street, Glasgow. She was sentenced in January 1850 to seven years transportation. It was her third conviction for theft. She was living in Havannah Street, Glasgow walking distance to Mr Crawford’s house in High Street.
By 1770, Glasgow had become the largest linen manufacturer in Britain – but tastes had changed and there was a move to cotton cloth. After 1850 spinning declined in importance but power-loom weaving of fancy muslins and high-quality shirtings continued to expand up to the First World War. A number of the inhabitants of Havannah Street in the 1851 Scotland census are employed in the textile industries – muslin weaver, shawl fringer, stream loom weaver and muslin clipper.
No suitable baptismal registration has been found for Stewart but her age at conviction and death gives a birth year of 1835. At the time of her conviction Stewart was 15 years old and a flax worker, but she had also worked as a country servant and nurse maid.
By Helen Ménard
This is the story of Nell and her second husband Pryce Pritchard, a property owner and farmer, living at the Black Brush, a rural area about 40 kilometres north of Hobart. They spent twenty years together but, despite living an apparently quiet life, all was not peace and harmony behind the scenes. Pryce struggled with physical and mental battles that arose from injuries sustained during service as a Royal Marine ‘in all parts of the globe’.
Nell Daverron was born in Limerick, Ireland most likely between 1780-1784 and, at some stage, moved to England. She was married to Richard Glynn (Gwynne) who lived in ‘the Boro’, but it is unknown whether they met and married in Ireland or England nor is there any record of whether they had any children. There are no birth or marriage records for Nell in Ireland, nor do there appear to be any marriage records in England. In fact, there is little information about Nell’s life up until her first recorded meeting with the law in England when she was about 40 years old.
By Helen Ménard
(Postscript added 21/04/2023)
Sadly, Janet’s story is a short one. The window into her life is miniscule – it barely covers eight years. We don’t know when she was born; anything about her family; where she went after she served her sentence; whether she ever married or had children; or where she died. What sets Janet’s story apart from many others is that she was probably only 12 years old when she was sentenced to be transported half a world away to a developing and often brutal colony. Of the 13,500 female convicts transported to Van Diemen’s Land (VDL) from 1803 to 1853, roughly 190 were 15 or younger – 1.4 percent; and approximately 39 were 13 or younger – 0.3 percent.
Although Janet had prior convictions for theft, she was hardly old enough to be a seasoned criminal and, like many of her contemporaries growing up in Glasgow during the industrial revolution, survival was undoubtedly her primary driving instinct.
(St Vincent, 1850)
By Helen Ménard
In the years from 1803 to 1853 almost 13,500 female convicts were transported from Britain and its colonies to Van Diemen’s Land (VDL) and were assigned to work all across the main island of Tasmania. Records suggest only about seven convict women were ever sent to the Furneaux Group of islands (part of Tasmania) that lie in the Bass Strait above the northeast tip of Tasmania - most for very short periods of time. Only one of those women made the islands her permanent home where she married, raised a family and became a respected member of the community until she met her untimely and unfortunate death – she was Catherine Barry. In fact, Catherine was one of the first three European women to live permanently in the Furneaux Group.
Catherine was born in Bristol, England between 1827 and 1829 of mother Ellen and father David Barry. She had at least two siblings – brothers John and Daniel. Catherine grew up in the middle of the industrial revolution in Britain where, despite the expanding wealth of the country domestically and internationally, the urban areas that were home to millions were overcrowded, disease ridden and unsanitary slums. Bristol is a city in southwest England, situated between Somerset and Gloucestershire on the tidal river Avon. It has been among the country's largest and most economically and culturally important cities for eight centuries. The late 18th and early 19th centuries saw the construction of a floating harbour, advances in shipbuilding and further industrialisation with the growth of the glass, paper, soap and chemical industries.
Mary DEVEREUX (The Younger)
by Helen Ménard
When Mary Devereux (the younger) was sentenced to death with her mother Mary Devereux (the elder) - both later commuted to transportation for life - she was only 18 years old and had no recorded criminal history. One might have thought that having escaped the gallows at such a young age she might have opted for a quieter life. Not so! Mary took on the penal system in Van Diemen’s Land (VDL) with all its rules and regulations with gusto. Over a twenty year period, after which she was finally granted a conditional pardon, she was charged with no less than forty three conduct offences resulting in almost eight years of incarceration. Most offences involved serious abuse of alcohol, absenteeism and misconduct while in detention. She even featured in the official ‘Inquiry into Female Convict Prison Discipline’ for dancing naked and other obscene behaviour! Marriage failed to temper the darkness in her soul - in the first five years of her marriage to John Wagg she spent almost a year in and out of the Cascades Female Factory. Nor did Mary ever manage to tame the ‘demon drink’. Eventually, she ended up in a de facto relationship with Edward King with whom she ‘frequently quarrelled’ and who was ultimately convicted of taking her life – she was only 45.
Read more on Mary Devereux (the younger) here (.pdf)
 LIB TAS: Names Index: CON40/1/3 p67 DI 73; CON32/1/4 p299 DI 149; CON32/1/2 p131 DI 67
 The Transcript of Report of the Committee of Inquiry into Female Convict Prison Discipline (1841-1843) is of the contents of file CSO/22/1/50 held at the Archives (TAHO) in the State Library of Tasmania, labelled Colonial Secretary, Franklin period. Report No. 5 March 24th, 1842 pages 274-76
 LIB TAS: Names Index: CON40/1/3 p67 DI 73; CON32/1/4 p299 DI 149; CON32/1/2 p131 DI 67
 TROVE: The Mercury (Hobart, Tas.: 1860-1954) Thu 31 Mar 1864, p2, ADJOURNED INQUEST ON THE BODY OF MARY DEVEREUX
Second chance: Elizabeth McBride (1819-1897)
(Elizabeth and Henry 1847)
Elizabeth McBride was born as Elisabeth Campbell McBride to John McBryde and his wife, Mary McKinnon, on 19 August 1819 in Greenock, Renfrewshire, Scotland. Elizabeth had two older brothers, Peter, born in 1804, and John, in 1813, and a sister, Catherine, born in 1816. Greenock at this time was a centre of shipping and ship building. Elizabeth, as her name was recorded in Van Diemen’s Land, was the only one of her siblings to have a middle name – a fact which made possible researching her life and finding documents referring to her. But even so, nothing of Elizabeth McBride’s Scottish life was discovered until 1840, when she was 21, when she married David Urquhart in her local parish church of Greenock Old or West. David was a mariner and oral family history suggests that Elizabeth’s family was also involved in this business.
(Providence II, 1826)
Don Bradmore and Jan Humphreys
This is the story of Margaret Norman [Providence 11 (2), 1826]. She was a wilful, rebellious young woman of 18 when she arrived in Van Diemen's Land. She was possibly one of the last women to have had to endure the humiliating stocks. She was once held at George Town for some months as an accessory to the murder of a police constable on duty there. However, like most of the women, she managed to find some inner peace as she matured, married and had children. She died in Victoria at the age of 77 in 1886.
CATHERINE JANE DOWNEY
Catherine Jane Downey was convicted of theft in Ireland in January 1841 and sentenced to transportation for seven years. Twenty-four years old and unmarried, she arrived in Van Diemen’s Land (VDL) with a four-month-old son aboard Mexborough in December that year. Thirty-two years later she was still a prisoner. During that time, she married and gave birth to at least two more children. A difficult prisoner for the convict authorities to manage, she was charged with new offences frequently and spent many months in prison. On three occasions her original sentence of transportation of seven years was extended – twice by twelve months and, on the third occasion, to penal servitude for life. Her last recorded gaol term was in November 1857 but what happened to her after that is unclear. A note in her convict documents reveals that, in 1873, the remainder of her life sentence was remitted and she was granted a free pardon. She was then about fifty-six. There is evidence that she was a pauper at that time and living on a charitable allowance from the Government. What eventually became of her remains a mystery.
Mary Ann Grayson
By Rae Blair
When twenty-three year old widow, Mary Ann Grayson, arrived in Van Diemen’s Land, she’d already shown a propensity to be difficult and this didn’t change when she arrived. She was transported from England for seven years after being found guilty of stealing twenty-one shillings and sixpence. An English northerner and farm servant by trade, Mary Ann’s time as a convict was characterised by her stubborn resistance to toeing the line, despite the many harsh punishments she received. She married fellow convict, Charles Bartam, which had a profound impact on both of their lives. Mary Ann became one of Tasmania’s most well-known and celebrated hoteliers, amassing assets that would become the centre of a bitter court battle. Mary Ann’s story is told over Three Acts.
Act I: in which Mary Ann’s life changes for ever—windowed farm servant, turned convict. Rebellious, punished, social.
Act II: in which Mary Ann builds the life she’s wanted—respected businesswoman, landlord, unparalleled hotelier.
Act III: in which we witness the epic battle for her assets.
This is her story. (.pdf)
Please note: There may be links in the stories below for conduct record, indent and description list which will take you to the Archives Office of Tasmania website.
- ACTON, Mary per Tory 1845. By Judith Cross (29/07/2020).
- ADAMS, Catherine per Sir Robert Seppings 1852 (The Dean Poisoning Case). By Colette McAlpine (17/11/2019).
- AHERN, Mary (Earl Grey 1851) by Helen Ménard
- ARMISTEAD, Hellen Copeland (arrived free). By Don Bradmore.
- ARNOTT, Jane per Margaret 1843 (The Cook and the Blacksmith). By Jan Westerink
- ASHLEY, Sarah (Margaret 1843). By Helen Menard.
- ATTWOOD, Elizabeth per Tory 1848. By Geoffrey Court
- BARNES, Sarah per Hector 1835. By Helen Menard.
- BARRINGTON, Theresa Charlotte per Emma Eugenia 1851. By Don Bradmore (13/02/2021)
- BECK, Ann per Sea Queen 1846, A Journey to New Norfolk Asylum. By Stephanie McComb (26/11/2020)
- BENNETT, Sarah per America 1831. By Don Bradmore
- BIDWELL, Elizabeth (Emma Eugenia 1846). By Geoff Jarvis.
- BLACKWOOD, Jean (per Nautilus 1838). 'A tough way to get a new start' by Elisabeth Hannelly
- BLEARS, Charlotte per Woodbridge 1843. By Kath Graham 2016
- BRADLEY, Margaret per Sea Queen 1846. By Don Bradmore (21/03/2020)
- BRAID, Mary per Hector 1835. By Helen Menard.
- BRASH, Jean (Sir Robert Seppings, 1852). By Don Bradmore
- BRAYSON, Margaret (Gilbert Henderson, 1840). By Don Bradmore.
- BRODIE, Margaret per Emma Eugenia 1842. By Don Bradmore (22/05/2020).
- CALLAGHAN, Elizabeth per Providence (II) 1822. By Don Bradmore (29/05/2021).
- CASCADES, May 1847. By Maureen Mann
- CAVANAGH, Rosannah per Abercrombie 1841. By Don Bradmore.
- CHADWICK, Elizabeth per Sea Queen 1846. By Don Bradmore (13/12/2020)
- CHAMBERLAIN, Rachel per Mary Ann 1822. By Don Bradmore (15/08/2020)
- COBBETT, Norah per Persian 1827. By Don Bradmore (19/02/2021)
- COMBS, Margaret (Sir Robert Seppings 1852), by Rae Blair.
- CONNOLLY, Mary - Lord Auckland 1849. By Don Bradmore (1/03/2021)
- COPLEY, Mary and Sarah per Hector 1835. By Helen Menard.
- CORFIELD, Susan per Mary III 1823. By Don Bradmore (21/02/2020)
- COTTERELL, Mary (per Elizabeth and Henry (2), 1847. By Don Bradmore
- COTTON, Emma (Rubicon 1833 & Marian Watson 1838) by Helen Ménard.
- CUNNINGHAM, Hannah per Hector 1835. By Helen Menard
- CUTHBERT, Isobel per Margaret 1843 ('Do not use me so'). By Ian Billing
- DOCKERTY, Mary per Hydery 1832 ('Destinies plan for Mary Dockerty'). By Kay Buttfield (16/10/2017)
- DONOVAN, Ellen per Martin Luther 1852 ('Campbell Town Nell'), by Diane Honan (12/01/2020)
- DONOVAN, Margaret (Hector, 1835) by Helen Ménard.
- DONOVAN, Mary per Rajah 1841. By Erica Orsolic (16/10/2017)
- DORE, Eliza per Duchess of Northumberland 1853. By Barry Files
- DOVE, Mary per William Bryan 1833 ('A letter to my great great great granddaughter'). By Margaret Walsh (16/10/2017)
- DOWLING, Esther per Currency Lass 1834. By Don Bradmore (6/01/2020).
- DRAKE, Maria, (Margaret 1843). By Don Bradmore.
- DUESNAP, Elizabeth per Maria to NSW, 1818; Elizabeth Henrietta to VDL, 1818. By Don Bradmore (23/01/2020).
- DYER, Elizabeth per Royal Admiral 1842. By Don Bradmore (13/02/2020).
- DYKE, Ann (Angelina, 1844). By Don Bradmore.
- FARQUHARSON, Elizabeth (Arab 1836). By Don Alcock.
- FENTON, Sarah per Mary Ann 1822. By Don Bradmore (15/08/2020).
- FERRIS, Louisa (Cadet, 2, 1848). By Don Bradmore.
- FINDLATER, Margaret per Cadet 1848. By Arthur Davidson
- FISHER, Ann per Mary III 1823. By Don Bradmore (25/02/2020).
- FITZPATRICK, Ann per Sea Queen 1846. By Don Bradmore (13/03/2020)
- FRANCIS Frances (Tasmania, 1844) by Don Bradmore.
- GATLEY, Mary Ann (Hector, 1835) by Helen Ménard
- GENTLES, Rebecca (Hector, 1835) by Gregory Burn
- GODWIN, Mary per Sea Queen 1846. By Don Bradmore (28/03/2020)
- GOULD, Jane per Baretto Junior 1850. By Don Bradmore (4/02/2020).
- GRADY, Jane per Emma Eugenia (3) 1844. By Don Bradmore (29/11/2020).
- GRAHAM, Charlotte (Phoebe, 1845) and SARAH (Blackfriar, 1851): 'Convict Sisters' by Don Bradmore.
- GREEN, Ann (2) per America 1831 by Don Bradmore (6/01/2020)
- GURNEY, Ellen (Hector, 1835) by Helen Ménard
- HALDANE, Mary Ann per Borneo 1828 ('A Lucky Escape'). By Victor G Malham
- HANLEY, Ellen (Greenlaw 1840). By Don Bradmore.
- HARFORD, Mary per Royal Admiral 1842. By Don Bradmore.
- HARRINGTON, Martha (Royal Admiral 1842). By Helen Ménard.
- HARRIS, Charlotte, per Anna Maria 1852 (The Orange Woman). By Rhonda Arthur (4/12/2019).
- HARVEY, Mary (Hector, 1835) by Helen Ménard
- HEATH, Hannah per Majestic 1839. By Don Bradmore (2/02/2021)
- HEMBLEN, Elizabeth (Royal Admiral 1842) by James Cosgrave
- HOLLEY, Sarah per Majestic 1839. By Peter Brennan (16/10/2017)
- HORE, Mary per Duchess of Northumberland 1853. By Don Bradmore (9/08/2020)
- HUDDERSFIELD FOUR per Sea Queen 1846. By T C Creaney 2015
- HUNT, Mary Ann (per Baretto Junior 1850). By Debra Norris.
- HUNT, Mary per Emma Eugenia 1851. By Diane Munro
- HUNTINGDON, Jane per Atwick 1838 ('Why my great great-grandmother is my heroine'). By Lorraine Roberts
- HUTCHINGS, Sarah per Providence II, 1826. By Don Bradmore (12/01/2020).
- JENNINGS, Elizabeth per Lord Sidmouth/Lusitania 1823. By Don Bradmore (1/01/2020).
- JOHNSTON, Eliza (2) (Sir Robert Seppings, 1852) by Don Bradmore
- JONES, Elizabeth per Siren 1835. By Don Bradmore
- KENNY, Bridget (Duke of Cornwall, 1850). By Don Bradmore.
- KING, Ann per Elizabeth Henrietta 1817. By Don Bradmore (21/06/2020).
- LAIRD, Mary (Woodbridge, 1843). By Don Alcock.
- LANDER, Agnes per Lloyds (3) 1845. By Don Bradmore (23/01/2021)
- LATHAM, Mary (Emma Eugenia, 3, 1844) by Don Bradmore
- LAYSHAW, Ann (Mary III, 1823) by Don Bradmore.
- LEGGATT, Sarah per Providence II 1824. By Don Bradmore
- LYNCH, Johanna per Janus and Princess Charlotte 1820. By Don Bradmore
- LYONS, Catherine per Nautilus 1838. By Geoffrey Court
- LYONS, Eleanor per Blackfriar 1851. By Don Bradmore
- MOORHEAD, Jane per Blackfriar 1851. By Don Bradmore (7/05/2020)
- MacCARTNEY, Jane per Hindostan 1839 ('The relative in the cupboard'). By Stephanie McComb
- MAGEE, Ellinor per Mexborough (1) 1841. By Don Bradmore (10/05/2021)
- MANLEY, Mary Ann (Cadet, 2, 1848) by Don Bradmore.
- MANNING, Mary per Persian 1827. By Don Bradmore (February 2020)
- MARKHAM, Essy (John William Dare, 1852) by Don Bradmore.
- MARTIN, Mary per Canada to Sydney, 1810; Emu to VDL 1815. By Don Bradmore (1/01/2020).
- McCABE, Catherine per Siren 1836. By Don Bradmore (18/12/2019).
- McCABE, Mary and TURNER, Mary Jane (Baretto Junior, 1850) By Helen Ménard
- McDEVITT, Eliza per Phoebe 1845. By Don Bradmore (7/03/2020)
- McLAREN, Martha per Tasmania 1844 ('Martha's Shawl'). By Lyn Horton
- McSTAY, Mary Ann (Waverley 1842). By Helen Menard.
- MILLER, Janet (Emma Eugenia, 1851) by Helen Menard.
- MILLS, Julia per Providence 1826. By Don Bradmore
- MORGAN, Ann, per Sea Queen 1846. By Don Bradmore (8/04/2020)
- MUNSLOW, Harriet, per Tasmania (I) 1844. By Don Bradmore (2/03/2020)
- NEALE, Harriot per Friendship to NSW 1818, Duke of Wellington to Hobart 1818 ('Skirting the Law?'). By Fiona MacFarlane
- NIGHTINGALE, Sophia per Janus to Sydney 1820, Princess Charlotte to Hobart 1820. By Geoffrey Court
- NOTTINGHAM, Jane per Duchess of Northumberland 1853. By Don Bradmore (10/09/2020)
- OGILVIE, Agnes (Hector, 1835). By Helen Menard.
- OXLEY Hannah (William Bryan, 1833) by Don Bradmore
- PAGET, Ann per Asia 1847 ('Biography of Ann Paget'). By David Edwards (16/10/2017)
- PATERSON, Elizabeth (Harmony 1829) by Helen Ménard.
- PICKETT, Ann per Cadet 1849. By Don Bradmore (31/01/2020).
- POLLARD, Jane (Tasmania, 1844) by Don Bradmore.
- POWELL, Ann (Brothers, 1824) – 'From Childish Games to Transportation and Hard Labour'. By Ann Williams-Fitzgerald
- PREECE, Jane (Anna Maria 1852) by Don Bradmore.
- SAVILLE, Elizabeth per Sir Robert Seppings 1852. By Geoffrey Court
- SMITH, Anne (Emma Eugenia 1846). By Helen Menard
- SMITH, Elizabeth (Hector, 1835), by Helen Ménard
- SMITH, Elizabeth, per Morley 1820. By Don Bradmore (21/03/2020)
- SMITH, Jane per Sea Queen 1846. By E. Crawford and Don Bradmore (19/01/2021)
- SMITH, Mary per Eliza 1830. By Don Bradmore (6/12/2020)
- STEWART, Mary Ann per Elizabeth & Henry 1848. By Don Bradmore 28/04/2020.
- SULLIVAN, Mary (John William Dare, 1852) by Don Bradmore
- SURRIDGE, Elizabeth per Baretto Junior 1850. By Don Bradmore (2/09/2020).
- SUTTON, Ann per William Bryan 1833. By John Peck (2016)
- WALLACE, Sarah (America, 1831) by Don Bradmore.
- WALSH, Mary Ellen (Earl Grey,1850), by Rae Blair.
- WATT, Hannah (Gilbert Henderson 1840). By Helen Menard.
- WATT, Isabella (Hector, 1835). By Helen Menard.
- WELL-TRAVELLED CONVICTS per Emma Eugenia 1842. By Margaret Jones
- WELLS, Emma (Tasmania, 1844) by Don Bradmore
- WHITBY, Sarah (Sir Charles Forbes 1837 to NSW, Louisa 1846 from NSW) by Helen Ménard.
- WICKS, Elizabeth per Brothers 1824. By Don Bradmore
- WILLIAMS, Maria Louisa per Mary III 1831 ('Maria Louisa Swinchatt transported for life to Van Diemen’s Land in 1831'). By Suzan A L Swinchatt (2019)
- WOMACK, Jane per Aeolus 1809 & WOMOCK, Jane per Maria 1818 ('a twist of fate'). By Rhonda Arthur (07/02/20).
- WOOD, Sarah (Aurora, II, (2), 1851). By Don Bradmore.
- WOODCOCK, Elizabeth (Angelina 1844). By Helen Menard.
- WOODS, Jane per Duke of Cornwall, 1850. By Don Bradmore (15/10/2020)
- WRIGHT, Ann Margaret per Providence II 1826. By Don Bradmore (11/12/2019).
- WRIGHT, Rachael per Friends 1811 and Lady Nelson 1812 ('Stealing an infant of tender years'). By Christopher Riley, PhD
Edges of Empire Biographical Dictionary:
Edges of Empire is a Biographical Dictionary offering accounts of nearly 200 female convicts who were tried or born outside the British Isles. All were transported to the Australian colonies of New South Wales and Van Diemen’s Land between 1788 and 1853. Their life stories have been tracked from numerous sources around the world, sometimes in detail and sometimes with the merest trace of their existence.
Our Genealogy page also contains some interesting female convict stories researched and written by our genealogists, transcribers and researchers.
The Founders and Survivors project newsletters also contain interesting stories on convicts.
(Scroll down toNewsletter subscription and Previous issues on the left hand side of the page.)
- Euphemia McCaulfield, ship John Calvin in Chainletter August 2011
(conduct record, indent, description list)