The Cessation of Transportation
The probation system for men, established by 1840, was a disaster. Transportation to New South Wales had ended to all convicts were sent to Tasmania, double the number too many for the community to assimilate. Male convicts were organised in large gangs of up to 600 men, with inadequate supervision, instruction, hard labour, clothing, shoes – just about everything. In these huge gangs the tough ruled; they were called schools of crime, where the criminal corrupted the innocent. Men emerged completely unreformed. There was also evidence of homosexual activity, regarded at the time as a terrible evil. When men emerged from gangs there was not enough employment for them and many turned to bushranging, terrifying the population.
There was an outcry against the probation system, and in 1847 it was reorganised, with better supervision and no male convicts for two years, to empty the gangs. The British government agreed to stop transportation altogether. But it could not find an alternative and in 1848 transportation was resumed. Most colonists felt betrayed and there was a loud outcry against transportation. The British Government retained it as long as they could, but eventually the continued outcry, as well as the discovery of gold in 1851 in New South Wales and Victoria – it seemed madness to transport criminals as punishment so near the goldfields – meant that transportation ended in 1853.
Throughout the debate in newspapers, private and public meetings with petitions and memorials to the British parliament and the secretaries of state, the focus was on male convicts. There were so many more men than women, with far more complaints about men’s behaviour, that women were largely ignored. When the British government had to act and in 1847 decided to suspend male convict transportation for two years, that of women was continued to even up the balance of sexes and (implied) discourage homosexual activity.
Cessation of Transportation Medal.
Medals to celebrate the end of transportation were given to children and to adults, who had worked hard for the cause, in 1855. They also celebrated the half-century since British settlement.
Made in England by the Royal Mint, they had on one side the head of Queen Victoria and the words ‘VICTORIA QUEEN’ and ‘MDCCCLIII’ (1853). On the reverse is one of the earliest examples of the Australian coat of arms, which was adopted officially at federation. Above it are the words ‘CESSATION OF TRANSPORTATION 1853’ and below ‘TASMANIA FOUNDED 1803’.
The above medal has been generously donated to the FCRC by Amanda Vallance, whose female convict ancestor, Sarah Barnes. arrived in 1828 on the Borneo. She was assigned to, and subsequently married a member of, the Denholm family in Bothwell. The medal had been passed down in her family, probably since it was first given to child in 1855, and came to Amanda through her grandmother Beryl Bowden who was the eldest child in her family. Most of the wording on the medal was ground off at some stage, and a hole drilled into the top, probably so it could be worn as a pendant.
Do you have a story about the transportation medal that you would like to share?
Roger McNeice, ‘The Jubilee of Tasmania and the Cessation of Transportation Medal of 1853’, (2013)
Museums Victoria Collection: https://collections.museumvictoria.com.au/items/57605
Cessation of Transportation Media Reports Open or Close
Launceston Examiner Thu 5 May 1853 page 4
REF: "CESSATION OF TRANSPORTATION." Launceston Examiner (Tas. : 1842 - 1899) 5 May 1853: 4 (AFTERNOON). Web. 9 Feb 2018 <http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article36268979>.
CESSATION OF TRANSPORTATION.
The subjoined despatch has been received by Sir William Denison from Sir. John Pakington, the late Secretary of State for the Colonies, and appeared in the Hobart Town Gazette of Tuesday.
Downing-street, December 14, 1852.
Sir,-From the terms of the speech delivered by her Majesty- to Parliament at the opening of the present session, you: will have. learned that her Majesty's confidential servants 'had felt it their duty to advise that the attention of Parliament should be called to the existing system of secondary punishment, with a view to the abolition, at no distant period, of transportation to Van Diemen's Land.
My object, in the present despatch, will be to convey to you the considerations which have weighed with her Majesty's government on this subject, and the views which they entertain on the proper course to be adopted for giving effect to their conclusions, should those conclusions meet with the approval of Parliament.
When I assumed the seals of this department, no subject appeared to me to require more anxious deliberation, both on account of the gravity of the moral considerations which it involved, and of its general importance to this country and to the colonies, than the great question of transportation. The subject, in its bearing on the repression of crime in this country, had previously demanded much of my attention both in the practical administration of justice, and also in Parliamentary enquiries, in which it fell to my lot to take a share, into prison discipline and the system of secondary punishment.
It now became my duty to study more particularly the colonial part of the question, and to review the records of past experience, and the course of the discussions upon it in the colonies.
I found that for some years, there had undeniably been proofs of a growing feeling against the continued introduction of convicts; and this feeling was not manifest in Van Diemen's Land alone, but in all the adjacent colonies. Various individuals in Van Diemen's Land had protested against the moral injury which they conceived the society in that island to suffer from the introduction of convicts; large public meetings petitioned against it, both in Van Diemen's Land and on the main-land of Australia; associations were formed for the exclusive purpose of opposing the practice; and, finally, I observe that the legislatures of Van Diemen's Land, of New South Wales, and of Victoria, all have remonstrated against the continuance of transportation.
On the other hand, I am not unaware of the arguments which have been adduced on the opposite side. The extent of the feeling which a few years ago was excited on this subject in Van Diemen's Land may, perhaps, not unreasonably be ascribed to the prevalence at that time of one deplorable crime, in consequence of the temporary over-crowding of the convicts and want of proper accommodation, which evil would appear since to have been effectually checked by better arrangements. In fact, it is a tribute which I owe both to yourself and Mr. Hampton the Comptroller-General, by whose talents and exertions, the public service has been so much benefitted, to say that I have observed with peculiar pleasure the constant and repeated evidences that, under this vigorous administration, the discipline of of. the Convicts in Van Diemen's Land has been brought to a state of great perfection.
In some able despatches, in the performance of what you considered your duty to the colony over which you preside, you have powerfully vindicated the order and industry and the good conduct of the population of Van Diemen's Land.
These are further attested by the voluntary evidence which I find recorded of impartial observers; and .whilst I do not wish for a moment to question the sincerity of the feelings which have been expressed against the introduction of convicts, yet the reports which it has become your duty to furnish of the readiness, and almost indeed the avidity, with which the services of the convicts in each successive ship that arrived have been engaged by the settlers, certainly raise at least a presumption that opinions on the subject in the colony are divided, and that there must be many who are glad of an opportunity to secure the advantage of this description of labour.
Her Majesty's government have not overlooked the considerations which on these and other grounds of great national importance may be urged m favour of transportation.
But, whatever may be their value taken in themselves, we find, as I have above stated, that there is a general expression of a strong repugnance in Van Diemen's Land and in the adjacent colonies to the further reception of convicts in either of them.
Whatever may be the private opinions of individuals who have not come forward on this question, numerous public meetings, and all the legislative authorities in these colonies, have declared themselves strongly against transportation: and her Majesty's government have felt it their duty to take such, steps as may enable her Majesty, with the assent of Parliament, to comply with a wish so generally and so forcibly expressed by her subjects in those colonies.
The propriety of this decision is supported by the effects of the discovery of gold. It would appear a solecism to convey offenders at the public expense, with the intention at no distant time of setting them free, to the immediate vicinity of those very gold fields which thousands of honest laborers are in vain striving to reach.
It is quite true that the offenders have to undergo a preliminary period of imprisonment and of labor, but these are not likely to daunt reckless minds.
Making every allowance for your efforts to pre vent the desertion of convicts whilst still subject to control, it is to be remembered that they .will in time become qualified for conditional pardons; and I think it must be admitted by every impartial observer, that transportation would be disarmed of its terrors, and that a very undesirable impression would be produced on the minds of the criminal class of offenders, should they long continue to be sent to an island in the immediate neighborhood of the gold colonies of Australia.
You will readily perceive that it must be impossible, at this moment, to fix the actual date for the end of transportation to Van Diemen's' Land. In order to, diminish the number, of convicts sentenced, to transportation so as to admit of their being disposed of in the more limited 'field which will remain available, certain alterations in the law must be submitted to parliament, new buildings must be constructed to accommodate the larger number of prisoners who would have to be detained in this country; and it cannot be expected that so great a revolution in the administration of the criminal law can be' accomplished without a sufficient allowance of time for the extensive changes which it will require
On the time by which we may hope that these can be completed, I shall probably address you again, when the arrangements are further matured.
I can only assure you that Her Majesty's Government are sincerely convinced of the good policy of the proposed measures, and anxious to carry them into effect as speedily as possible; and I trust that, when the full purpose which is entertained of accomplishing the object shall be known in the colony, the good sense and moderation of the inhabitants will lead them to acquiesce without reluctance, in the continuance of the existing practice until the large alterations required for its abolition can be duly provided for in this country.
I may state, in conclusion, that it is a source of much gratification to me to convey to you a decision so much in accordance with the strongly expressed wish of the colonists of Van Diemen's Land; and I trust that they may recognise in it the desire of the government of this country to consult their wishes, and to strengthen their loyalty to the crown, and attachment to the British Empire. - I have the honor to be, &c., &c.,
(Signed) John S. Pakington.
True copy. (Signed) Henry Merivale.
Lieuteuant-Governor Sir William Denison,
&c., &c., &c.
The Courier Thu 11 Aug 1853 Page 2 Cessation of Transportation
REF: "CESSATION OF TRANSPORTATION." The Courier (Hobart, Tas. : 1840 - 1859) 11 August 1853: 2. Web. 9 Feb 2018 <http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2244497>
CESSATION OF TRANSPORTATION.
WEDNESDAY, 10th AUGUST, 1853.
THE TENTH OF AUGUST, 1853.
Hurra for the noble Leaguers !
Hurra for our British Queen !
Hurra for the tread of Freemen,
Where Bondsmen erst have been !
Peal on, ye shrill-voiced heralds !
Your thrilling music tolls
Tasmania's happy future;
Peal on, ye English bells !
From city hall to cottage,
O'er all our island homes,
Ring round your benediction !
The unstained future comes.
Pure hearths and rev'renced Sabbaths,
True hearts on land and sea,
Industrious, honest Lieges,
And Rulers of the Free.
Thronged are the sacred temples,
Where breathes Thanksgiving sweet ;
Gay is the children's banquet,
Joyous the public street.
Peal on, ye solemn heralds !
Your thrilling music tells
Tasmania's unstained future ;
Peal on, ye sacred bells !
Campbell street. W. D.
"Pack clouds away and welcome day,
With night we banish sorrow."
THE DAY being the Fiftieth Anniversary of the foundation of the colony by Lieut. Bowen, in 1803, it was arranged that the Rejoicings should take place, and the Committee appointed at the recent Public Meeting therefore gave notice that the day would be observed as a Public Holiday in the City of Hobart Town ; and although His Excellency the Lieutenant Governor had declined to identify the Government with the Public Rejoicings on that day, the Committee feeling that as Her Majesty was pleased to observe, in her speech from the Throne, that she should rejoice if Transportation to Van Diemen's Land was discontinued ; and as Her Majesty's Secretary of State, the Duke of Newcastle, in his Despatch to the Lieutenant Governor of this Colony, dated 22nd February last, has been pleased to announce that Her Majesty's Government have come to the resolution of putting an end at once to the Transportation of Convicts to Van Diemen's Land, they considered therefore they would be wanting in those feelings of respect and loyalty due to Her Majesty if they did not call upon all classes of her loyal and faithful subjects to unite in the Public Rejoicings on the Jubilee Day.
At six o'clock the "merry peal of bells" ushered in the Day of Jubilee, and the ringing was continued at intervals during the day.
The mists of early morning having vanished before the dazzling sunbeams, the population of Hobart Town awoke to glad commemoration, and, under the circumstances, we are bound to state that the rejoicing was general.
The shipping business of the port was entirely suspended, and the vessels in harbour hoisted their ensigns, and were gaily decked out with flags of all nations. At an early hour, and throughout the day, salutes were fired with a precision and rapidity which reflected great credit upon the mercantile marine. The thanks of the community are due to the masters of the various vessels for having thus, in a spirit of loyalty to Her Majesty and deference to the public wishes, contributed to the eclât of the proceedings of the day.
The Jubilee Day was observed as a Bank holiday, and the various warehouses on the wharves were closed, except as to the admission of spectators. An overwhelming majority of the shops were closed throughout the day, others closed in the afternoon, and the remainder generally closed at an earlier hour than usual. The first regular business of the day which we are now called upon to report was the
“And these thoughts shall be told to you, that you may also join with me in the thankfulness to the Giver of every good and perfect gift for our happiness. * * * * * Every misery that I miss is a new mercy, and therefore let us be thankful.” – IZAAK WALTON
The following places of Worship were open for Divine Service at 11 o'clock a.m.:-St. David's Cathedral, Macquarie -street; Chalmer's Free Church, Harrington-street; Independent Chapel, Collins street; Baptist Chapel, Harrington-street.
At St. David's Cathedral a choral service was performed, morning prayers being read by the Venerable Archdeacon Davies, (assisted by the Rev. Mr. Wilson), and included a special reference to the commemoration in the Thanksgiving of the Church on such occasions. Jackson's Te Deum was sung for the first time in an effective and solemn style.
"Oh! give relief, and Heaven will bless your store"
THE BISHOP OP TASMANIA has given £10 as his "Jubilee Subscription," to be applied to the relief of those- poor families who have suffered from the visitation of sickness during the prevalence of the scarlet fever. His Lordship observes "that, although no one will more cordially rejoice than himself in the Cessation of Transportation, still, at this season of sick ness, death and sorrow, his feelings are not in unison with festive demonstrations. Sickness brings to the poor man privation as well as feebleness and sorrow. He would rather, then, that his little offering should reach the house of mourning than the house of feasting." From an advertisement in another part of to-day's paper, it will be seen that Archdeacon Davies intends to follow up the idea thus suggested and after Morning and Evening Services on Sunday next make a collection in aid of those families more particularly alluded to in the Bishop's letter.
The attendance at Chalmers's Free Church was not very numerous, and the Service was such as suited the occasion, including a prayer, in which the blessings, national and social, bestowed by an overruling Providence were devoutly and gratefully acknowledged, and an address, intimating rather the Christian duty of thankfulness under all circumstances, than its application to the immediate purport of the day's celebration. The text selected was a part of the 21st verse of the 14th chapter of St John's Gospel, and the whole scope of the discourse admirably exemplified the obligation upon all who partook in the blessings of the Christian dispensation to that obedience and that standard of faith and duty which are enjoined by its Head.
At Collins-street Chapel, (Independent), the Rev. G. Clarke delivered an address, referring in the first place to the proper relation of religion and politics then showing reasons for thankfulness for the religious and social privileges with which the colony had been favoured, |and for the removal of the prospect of having transportation perpetuated. Mr. Clarke also dwelt upon the duties of citizens in cherishing a spirit of obedience to the laws-guarding carefully the religious and civil liberties entrusted to them - avoiding all factious opposition, and cultivating religious principle as the safeguard of all our rights and liberties.
At the Harrington-street Chapel, (Baptist), the Rev. Kerr Johnstone addressed the congregation from an appropriate text in the Book of Leviticus, in which tile Jubilee of the children of Israel is recorded. In alluding to the circumstances of the day, he could not, he observed, being a stranger, enter into the subject so deeply as he might otherwise have done, but enjoined the general duty of thankfulness for this as for all other mercies derived under the care of an overseeing and presiding Providence.
The children attending the Collins-street Independent School, headed by Messrs. Hopkins and Haller, and with their teachers and the addition of a number of «children from Brisbane street Sunday School, marched hi procession to the wharf. They were preceded by a beautiful silk banner, and were joined by the children of St. John's Presbyterian School. When they arrived at the wharf three cheers were given for the Queen, the Cessation of Transportation, and the Jubilee.
At one o'clock the bells, after various peals in "triple bob-majors," &c. fired fifty rounds, and the New Wharf became the scone of attraction. Here a vast and moving concourse was assembled, at one time numbering about six thousand, including children of both sexes: the whole population had turned out en masse, clothed in holiday attire, to celebrate the day. It was here that
THE JUVENILE ENTERTAINMENT
“The patriot bands
“Were of the hills like you, ye little ones.”
took place; the large and commodious stores of Isaac Wright, Esq., having been expressly fitted up for the occasion, and formed a large and spacious banqueting room, being a large parallelogram, the left of which was divided, leaving four rows of table accommodation for youthful guests. On the right a series of seven compartments, with transverse tables, with the exception of two of the enclosures, two of which were set apart as "butlers"' and "confectioners' "pantries, increased the accommodation.
These compartments formed a series of arched recesses, embowered with indigenous plants and evergreens, on the whole bearing a picturesque and pleasing aspect. A raised platform screened from general view was provided for the accommodation of the Baud, which played a series of popular airs during the entertainment.
The dais, over which was a banner inscribed "Jubilee, 1853, –Cessation of Transportation," was occupied by Henry Hopkins, Esq., the Chairman of the Jubilee Committee, who was supported by the Ven. Archdeacon Davies.
From the vast number of children who sought admission, it was only possible to admit five hundred at once.
By order of the Committee, the banquetting-room had been thrown open for public inspection when the tables were laid, and thousands of people availed themselves of the opportunity, forming a continuous stream for several hours.
THE JUBILEE CAKE,
which was frosted and elegantly ornamented in every variety of artistic embellishment, and made expressly for the regalement of the children, fourteen feet in circumference, was the most conspicuous object in the room. It was mounted on a stand enveloped in blue drapery and fringed with red, surmounted by the Union Jack and a distinctive bannerol, displaying as a device the kangaroo. The cake was of appropriate thickness, and was made at Mr. Higgins's, the pastrycook in Liverpool-street, and, we may observe, reflects the highest credit upon his skill. Part of the premises, as we have had occasion to state before, had to be taken down before it could be removed from the bakehouse.
And here it becomes our duty to notice another point, which, though not exactly coming in the programme of the day, is so much connected with the subject as to call for especial record at this stage. We allude to the cakes for the children at
THE QUEEN'S ORPHAN SCHOOLS.
These cakes were each nine feet in circumference, and were of the best materials. A deputation from the Jubilee Committee attended the delivery of them at the Queen's Orphan Schools on Tuesday, and the reception of the luxuries by the youthful inmates of that establishment was joyful and hilarious in the extreme. The deputation describe the whole affair as a perfect treat, and some regret is experienced that a greater number of people were not present to witness it. The children, who we may observe are particularly healthy looking, clapped their tiny little hands with joy, and burst out into a flood of enthusiastic huzzas. An authority from the Comptroller-General had been sent to receive the present, and the Rev. Mr. Ewing thanked the Committee for the treat thus afforded to the children under his charge. They were distributed yesterday.
Were plentiful and substantial. The tables literally "groaned," to use a convenient newspaper phrase, with sandwiches and dainty tarts supplied by Hoggins, and the ginger beer and lemon syrup was freely circulated.
The CHAIRMAN addressed the children upon the importance of the occasion on which they were now assembled to partake in - the general rejoicings, in commemoration of the settlement of the colony and the Cessation of Transportation. Those who were now passing away from the stage of this life were leaving them their country free, and he expressed a hope that by their good and exemplary conduct they would render it a peaceful and a happy one – that they would become good men and women-that they would live in the fear and love of God and keep His commandments.
The VENERABLE THE ARCHDEACON DAVIES having asked a blessing, the work of demolition commenced, and each child was presented, on retiring, with a piece of the Jubilee Cake, which was cut up by Messrs. W. Robertson, G. Hutton, and C. T, Smith, and also with a Ticket, which entitles the holder to
Which will be struck in commemoration of the Cessation of Transportation to Van Diemen Land.
The children having retired, the tables were again replenished, and another five hundred admitted. These in turn wore addressed by the Chairman, and partook of the refreshments afforded, and so on until the whole who could obtain admission were regaled.
The pressure outside was very great, and serious apprehensions were felt for the safety of some of the children. By great exertions, however, on the part of the Sunday School Teachers and members of the Committee, lines were formed to secure safety of ingress, and we believe no accident occurred. Many persons were, nevertheless, disappointed; and their children neither obtained admission nor tickets for medals. The latter circumstance specially tends to increase that disappointment, and a hope is entertained that, if the funds permit, some arrangements will be made by the Committee to supply those families whose members, it shall appear upon application, are not in a position to claim the medal.
In the evening a Grand Display of Fireworks took place in the enclosure facing the High School, commencing at 7 o'clock with the ascent of two Fire Balloons, which were wafted many a mile to seaward, and if going yet would bear the glad tidings of Tasmania's Freedom to the Southern Pole. The following was the programme, which was adhered to with but slight variation. The concourse of people was immense, and blue lights were burned on board some vessels in the harbour. The adjacent hills in the Richmond district were surmounted by gigantic bonfires, and another threw a rich and lurid glare from Mr. Livingstone's property, at the Cascade Heights.
- Metamorphose Piece, "Peace and Unity"
- Triangle Wheel with a Revolving Sun
- Caprice Wheel
- Palm Tree
- Horizontal Wheel with a Globe
- Yew Tree
- Spiral Wheel
- Chinese Cross
- Laurel Piece
- Flying Pigeon
- Saxon Wheel with Revolving Sun, forming the True Lover's Knot
- Cross Piece with Four Triangular and Revolving Suns
- Saxon Piece with Rainbow Wheel in Centre
- Brilliant Transparency of Her Most Gracious Majesty Queen Victoria, surrounded withmFireworks
The whole concluding with the Horizontal Metamorphose Piece.
During the intervals Rockets, Mines, Shells, Jack-in-the-Boxes, Crimson, Green and Blue Fires were fired.
The Band played at intervals during the Pyrotechnic display the "Tasmanian Quadrilles," "Jeannette and Jeannot," -and other popular airs, concluding with the National Anthem of our mother-country, the Northern Island Queen.
THE LIEUTENANT-GOVERNOR'S REPLY TO THE COMMITTEE.
SOME enquiry having been made as to the reasons why His Excellency declined to identify the Government with the General Rejoicing, we have procured the following copy:
"GENTLEMEN, – As the only result of the course which you propose to adopt will be to continue, and even enhance, those feelings of antagonism of class against class which at present operate so prejudicially to the comfort and happiness of the community, I must decline to identify the Government with it in any way, and I cannot therefore accede to your request that I would allow the 10th of August to be a public holiday.
"Government House, Hobart Town,
"2nd August, 1853.
THE GENERAL REJOICINGS,
However, have been such as must bring conviction to the mind of His Excellency that he has been mistaken. Upon a question of such deep and vital importance there could not be any real difference of opinion. Those, comparatively few, who were disposed to keep aloof from the movement were actuated by various motives ; but in none, except in the case of a majority of six of the seven members of the Municipal Council, have the same reasons been publicly
avowed. It was, however, satisfactory to perceive that Mr. Alderman Bonney, one of the supporters of the letter convoying the refusal of the Municipality to co-operate with the Committee in the rejoicings, closed his place of business upon the occasion.
Mr. Alderman Elliston, a consistent supporter of the Jubilee in his place in the Municipal Council, gave a large extempore party at his auction mart in the evening, which was attended by upwards of 150 ladies and gentlemen. The spacious and elegant apartment was lighted by a brilliant star in the interior, and the whole arrangements were in accordance with the well-known taste and liberality of the proprietor.
LAUNCH OF THE SCHOONER "JUBILEE".
NOT the least attractive of the festivities connected with the day was the launch of a fine schooner, of 50 tons, named the "Jubilee," belonging to Messrs. Marsh & Chapman, built for them by the firm of Mackey & Cullen, and intended for the Huon River trade. After testing her sailing qualities in the harbour, with colours flying, a party of friends of the owners and builders were invited to partake of an entertainment on board. Some speeches were made in reference to the occasion, and the whole affair passed off in a manner highly interesting to all concerned.
The amusements of the day wore agreeably diversified by private parties, who made up boating excursions, country trips, &c, on the occasion. Among the events worth notice is the fact that several couples were united in marriage, and will date their happiness (which it is to be hoped will he uninterrupted), from the Day of Jubilee.
The newspaper offices were closed.
With reference to the Police we may remark that, owing to the arrangements made by the Committee, with the assistance of the Chief Police Magistrate, who had made the necessary disposition of the Police (who behaved exceedingly well), the town throughout the day and night was remarkably quiet, and fewer persons for misconduct or drunkenness brought into the watch-house than on ordinary days, a fact which speaks volumes in favour of the Demonstration.
Thus have we placed on record the proceedings of the people of Hobart Town on this important occasion. It has never fallen to our lot to witness a more joyous or more general celebration. The event which has given rise to such a satisfactory result is one which cannot be over-estimated. MAY THE LAND OF OUR ADOPTION, AND WHICH WE ARE ABOUT TO BEQUEATH TO OUR CHILDREN, BE HENCEFORTH HAPPY AND FREE.