The following rules and regulations for the management of Cascades Female Factory were published in the Hobart Town Gazette on 3 October 1829 and printed by J. Ross of Liverpool Street, Hobart in 1829. They were later used/adapted for other Female Factories.
Rules and Regulations for the management of the House of Correction for Females:—
1. A House of Correction having been erected for the reception of Female Convicts, and for the punishment and reformation of Female Offenders, the following Rules and Regulations are to be observed for the due managment of the Establishment.—
2.—The Principal Superintendent of Convicts being a Magistrate, is charged with the general direction of the House of Correction.—He is to visit it daily for the purpose of hearing and determining offences committed within the walls,—of seeing that all the Records hereinafter described are correctly kept,—of examining minutely into the state of the Establishment, and of issuing Instructions, in writing, to the Superintendent upon all such matters as require his interference.
3.—He is to countersign all Requisitions, examine the Accounts, (and certify that he has so done,) as well of the Articles supplied for the use of the Establishment, as of those manufactured by the Women, and he is to transmit such Reports and Returns as shall place the Lieutenant Governor in possession of the requisite information as to the increase or decrease of crime amongst the Female Convicts,—the quantity of work performed,—the general state of the Establishment,—and, most especially, the expense of the Institution.
4.—He is to submit, for the more efficient control, or, for the reformation of the Females, such measures as he may be enabled from time to time to suggest from his own observations,—or, from the information of the Superintendent,—and, on the Lieutenant Governor's sanction being notified to him by the Colonial Secretary,—He is to record the instruction in order that it may thenceforth be observed as a standing Regulation of the Establishment.
5.—Cleanliness—quietness—regularity–submission–and industry are inserted in the general Regulations as being epxected by the Government to be observed throughout the Establishment, and, therefore, they are to be uninterruptedly enforced by the Principal Superintendent, and he is to allow no excuse whatever in justification of the slightest occasional departure from the strict observance of all these essential points which are required unvaringly to characterise the House of Correction.
6.—With all the attention that can be bestowed, the Establishment must necessarily be a heavy charge upon the Government, and the most scrupulous attention to economy is therefore expected to pervade the whole system of the Establishment.
7.—It is, alone, by frequently visiting the different classes, and by constantly inspecting the treatment,—the food,—and the employment of the Women, that the Principal Superintendent can conscientiously satisfy himself, or faithfully assure the Government, that they are neither allowed improper indulgencies, nor subjected to unnecessary harshness, and that the Rules and Regulations for the management of the Establishment, and for the punishment and reformation of the Female Offenders, are duly observed and punctually enforced in every Department.
8.—For the management of the Establishment, the following Officers, are, or will be, appointed,—a Superindent—a Matron—an Overseer and Task Mistress for the Crime Class—a Porter—a Clerk—and two Constables.
He is entrusted with the immediate management of the Establishment, under the directions of the Principal Superintendent of Convicts, and held responsible for the safe custody of the Women, and for the strict observance of the Rules and Regulations for the House of Correction.
Every article within the walls is also entrusted to his charge, and he is responsible that the Public Property is carefully preserved and accounted for.
He is to communicate to the subordinate Officers, in writing, such instructions as he may receive from the Principal Superintendent, and to see that they are duly carried into effect.
He is to keep a regular Journal, noting in it all occurrences of importance, especially cases of misconduct, and the measures thereupon adopted. This Book is to be submitted to the Principal Superintendent whenever he visits the Establishment.
Before breakfast every morning, and after supper every evening, he is to read to all the classes assembled in the Chapel, a portion of Scripture, accompanied by a short Prayer : if the Chaplain should be present, this duty will of course be performed by him.
He is to inspect all the rooms and yards of the building after the Women have proceeded to their morning's labour, and see that they are kept in order, and perfectly clean throughout the day.
He is from time to time during the day to visit all the classes while at work, to satisfy himself that quietness is observed, that idleness is not permitted by the Task-women, and that, in every way, good order is strictly maintained.
He is to inspect the provisions when issued to the Cooks, and again when divided into messes, and to be present during dinner for the purpose of preventing any irregularity.
He is to give instructions to the Overseer of the Crime Class, and through the Matron, to the serveral Task-women respecting the employment of the Convicts under their charge : and, at the close of the day, is to require from each a report of the manner in which the work has been performed, and of the general conduct of each class, and comparing them with his own personal observations during the day, is to note the result in his Journal.
He is, with the assistance of some of the well-conducted Task-women, to devote a portion of every alternate evening during the week to the instruction of such Women as may be inclined to learn, and on Sundays he is to cause such as cannot read to be assembled and instructed.
He is to inspect all Articles of Provisions when furnished for the use of the Establishment, and to satisfy himself that they are wholesome, and supplied according to the terms of contract.—When any of an unwholesome or inferior quality are supplied, he is to reject them, reporting the circumstance to the Principal Superintendent.
He is empowered to confine any Female in a solitary cell, for disobedience of orders, neglect of duty, or other improper conduct, for a period not exceeding 24 hours, but, he is to enter the full particulars of each case in his Journal, and to report the same to the Principal Superintendent, on his visiting the Establishment.
He is to visit the Females confined in the cells every monrning, to satisfy himself that they are in health, and that their punishment is duly enforced. Should any Female while confined in a cell, represent herself to be sick, he is to report the same to the Medical Officer when he visits the Establishment, and, immediately if the case be urgent, remove her to the Hospital yard.
He shall be allowed a Clerk for the regular keeping of the undermentioned Books :—
1.—A Victualling Book according to the scale of Rations allowed the Establishment.—(In the form furnished by the Commissariat.)
2.—A Register in which shall be enetered the names of the Females as they shall be received into the Establishment, with the date of entry, and the day on which they shall be assigned or discharged, (Form A.)
3.—An alphabetical Book which shall contain the names of all Females received into the Establishment—their offences—general conduct—description—temper—and habits, during their confinement, (B.)
4. A Record of all offences committed within the walls, distinguishing the cases adjudged by the Principal Superintendent, from the minor offences disposed of by himself.
5.—A Book in which shall be enetered the receipt and expenditure of the Females, and which shall exhibit their daily employment, the proceeds of their labour, and the value and appropriation of the Articles manufactured.
6.—The Convicts "Private Property Book," in which all Articles received shall be entered, and their mode of disposal recorded.
7. A Book in which shall be inserted these Regulations, together with such additional Regulations as shall from time to time be issued for the government of the Establishment.
8. A Memorandum Book containing a journal of daily occurrences, in which any directions given by the Principal Superintendent are to be inserted.
He is to furnish the followin returns weekly to the Principal Superintendent, who will certify as to their accuracy, and transmit them through the Colonial Secretary, for the information of the Lieutenant Governor.
1.—The weekly state of each class, the mode of employment, the number admitted, and the number discharged.
2.—Return of offences within the walls, by whom adjudged, nature and extent of the punishment.
3.—Enumeration of the Articles manufactured, or work performed by the Females, and how disposed of.
4.—A list of those Females who shall be assignable, exhibiting their names, ship, date of arrival, the service from which they are received, date of entrance into the Establishment, the description of work they are capable of performing, together with the particulars of their conduct, character, and habits, as far as they can be ascertained.
He shall note in his Journal his own absence and that of the Matron, whenever either of them may have cause to leave the Establishment.
The Matron shall superintend such part of the employment of the Women as falls within the province of a Female, and shall attend to such matters as could not be properly performed by the Superintendent, and shall generally asssit him in the care and control of the Establishment.
She is to give instructions to the Task-women about the employment of the Females, and shall receive from them the Articles manufactured.
She is to inspect the Females in their separate wards at the morning muster, and shall see that they are clean and properly dressed.
She is to visit the sleeping rooms daily, and see that they are kept perfectly clean and in order by the Wardswomen.
She is to visit constantly throughout the day, the Hospital, Nursery, and Kitchen yards, and to superintend and give directions in all that is going forward in either, most watchfully observing that in every thing extreme cleanliness, and order, and industry, and economy prevail.
OVERSEER and TASK-MISTRESS of the CRIME CLASS
The Overseer is to superintend the Crime Class at their several occupations, keep an account of all the implements and tools required for their employment, on occasions when the Superintendent is necessarily absent, he is to act as his deputy, and in the general management of the Establishment, shall render the Superintendent such assistance as he may require, conforming himself to his instructions. The Women confined in the cells are most especially under his charge, he is to visit them at least morning and evening, to watch them whilst they are alternately permitted to be in the cell yard, to issue to them their daily allowance of Bread and Water, to cause the cells to be cleaned in this presence, and to take especial care that no person whatever is allowed to hold conversation with the Convicts under confinement.
The Task-mistress of the Crime Class is to assist the Overseer in all his duties, and on her vigilance and unremitting attention the order and general improvement of the Women greatly depends.
Minute instructions for the direction of this class will be prepared and signed by the Principal Superintendent, and having been approved by the Lieutenant Governor, are to be affixed in some conspicuous part of the yard, and even the slightest deviation is on no account to be allowed or passed by without the severest animadversion.
The Porter is to keep a book (form C), in which he shall enter the name of every individual who comes into, or goes out of, the Establishment ; with the exact hour of such entry and departure ; and he is not to suffer any person attached to the Establishment to leave it without a written order from the Superintendent, which he is also to enter in his book.—
He is not to permit any person to enter the inner door of the Establishmetn except the Members of the Executive and Legislative Councils, Magistrates, Chaplains, and Medical Attendants, without the written authority of the Principal Superintendent.
He is to keep an account of all Articles as they are supplied for the use of the Establishment, and of such as may be taken away.
When any Articles shall be delivered at the Establishment, he is to give notice thereof to the Superintendent or Matron, who is to attend for the purpose of receiving them.
He is to ring the bell at such times as are required by the Rules and Regulations of the Establishment, and as the season varies, the stated hours will be notified on a board, fixed in the Lodge, under the hand of the Principal Superintendent.
Two Constables are to be attached to the Establishment,—one of whom shall be constantly on duty,—and they shall act as Messengers.
They are not to be permitted to enter the inner gate, unless their aid should be required in quelling any riot or disturbance, nor are they to speak to, or converse with any Female confined within the walls of the Establishment.—More detailed Instructions will be issued to them by the Principal Superintendent, Task-women and Wards-women.
For each Class, a Task-woman is to be selected, of approved conduct. She is to have the immediate superintendence of the Women in her class. She is to see that they rise at the proper hour in the morning as the first bell rings ;—that their persons are washed, their bedding properly made up, and that they are in readiness for the inspection of the Superintendent and Matron at the general muster, when they shall proceed to the performance of their several duties.—
In case of any irregularity, neglect of duty, or disobedience of orders by the Women under their charge, the Task-women are immediately to report the circumstance to the Superintendent or Matron.
One Wards-woman is to be allotted to each sleepingroom ;—her duty will be to superintend the care of all the bedding and utensils which belong to her room, and to see that they apartment is kept in proper order.
No Female Convict shall be received into the Establishment (excepting such as may be placed there on their arrival from England) without the written authority or warrant of a Magistrate, stating the offence of which she has been guilty and her sentence,—if any shall have been passed.—
Every Female brought to the Establishment shall be placed in the reception-room until she shall have been examined by the Surgeon ;—she shall then be bathed, washed, and dressed in the clothing of the Establishment ; and, if incarcerated for any offence, she shall have her hair cut short. The clothes which she shall have brought with her shall be burned, if foul or unfit to be preserved ; but if otherwise, they shall be washed and kept for her benefit on her discharge from the Establishment. All Articles so kept, shall, in the presence of the Female, be enetered in the "Private property book," be made up into a parcel, numbered and marked with the name of the Female to whom it belongs, and shall be kept in a place appropriated for that purpose, and shall be delivered up to her on her discharge from the Establishment.
The Females are to be placed in three distinct classes, which shall on no account be suffered to communicate with each other.
The 1st. Class shall consist of those Women who may be placed in the Establishment on their arrival from England, without any complaint from the Surgeon Superintendent,—of those who are returned from service with good characters,—and of those who have undergone at least three months' probation in the second, after their sentence in the third class has expired. The Women of this class alone shall be considered assignable, and shall be sent to service when proper situations can be obtained.
The 2d. Class shall consist of Females who have been guilty of minor offences, and of those who, by their improved conduct, merit removal from the Crime Class.
The 3d., or Crime Class, shall consist of those Females who shall have been transported a second time, or who shall have been guilty of misconduct on their passage to the colony,—of those who shall have been convicted of offences before the Supreme Court, who shall have been sent in under the sentence of a Magistrate, or who shall have been guilty of offences within the walls,—they shall never be removed from the 3d. to the 1st. Class.
The dress of the Females shall be made of cheap and coarse materials, and shall consist of a cotton or stuff gown, or petticoat, a jacket and apron, with a common straw bonnet of strong texture ; and the classes whall be distinguished as follows, viz :—
The 1st. Class shall wear the dress without any distinguishing mark.
The 2d. Class by a large yellow C on the left sleeve of the jacket.
The 3d. Class by a large yellow C in the centre of the back of the jacket, one on the right sleeve, and another on the back part of the petticoat.
Each Female is to be furnished with clean Linen every week, viz :—
2 Handkerchiefs, and
2 Pair Stockings.
The 1st. Class shall be employed as Cooks, Task-women, Hospital Attendants,—or in such other manner as shall be directed by the Principal Superintendent.
The 2d. Class shall be employed in making Clothes for the Establishment, in getting up linen, or in such other manner as shall be directed by the Principal Superintendent.
The 3d. Class shall be employed in washing for the Establishment, for the Ophan Schools, Penitentiary, in Carding Wool, Spinning, or in such other manner as shall be directed by the Principal Superintendent.
The hours of labour shall be as follows :—
Muster ...... ½ past 5 Six Seven Labour ...... Six ½ past 6 Breakfast ... Eight Eight Eight Prayers &
½ past 8 ½ past 8 ½ past 8 Dinner ...... Twelve Twelve Twelve Labour ...... Sunset Sunset Sunset Eveng. Meal ½ past 7 ½ past 6 ½ past 6 Prayers ...... Eight Seven Seven
The Diet of the several Classes shall be as follows :—
Breakfast Dinner Supper ¼ lb. Bread
and pint of
½ lb. Bread
¼ lb. Bread
*The soup to be made in the proportion of 25 lbs. of meat to every 100 quarts of soup, and to be thickened with vegetables and peas, or barley, as may be most convenient.
Ox or sheep heads may be used advantageously for making the soup.
The Females in each class are to be formed into messes consisting of twelve each ;—the best conducted Woman is to be named Overseer of her mess, and to be responsible for the conduct of the other eleven. Each mess is to sleep in the same room, and their hammocks are to be slung together.
Females guilty of disobedience of orders, neglect of work, profane, obscene, or abusive language, insubordination, or other turbulent or disorderly, or disrespectful conduct, shall be punished by the Superintendent with close confinement in a dark or other cell, until her case shall be brought under the consideration of the Principal Superintendent.
Hospital and Nursery
The internal economy of the Hospital and Nursery yards will be regulated by the Medical Attendant, who will accordingly frame a code of regulations, which, when approved by the Lieutenant Governor, are to be strictly observed by the individuals entrusted with the duties of these yards. The Medical Officer is punctually to attend the Establishment every morning, whether there are, or are not, any sick Women.
1. None of the inferior Officers shall absent themselves from the Establishment without first obtaining the Superintendent's authority.
2. No Officer belonging to the Establishment shall be permitted to receive under any pretence whatever, any gratuity or present, either pecuniary or otherwise, from persons with whom the Government shall have contracted for the supply of any article for the Establishment, or from persons who may visit the Establishment, or have any work performed in it ;—in plain language, no persons employed in the Establishment, are, either directly, or indirectly, to receive any gratuity or reward whatever beyond the Salary and allowance granted by the Government.
3. No Female who shall have been returned from service for misconduct, shall be allowed to be again assigned, until she shall have undergone a probation of not less than three months in the 2d. Class ;—in cases of frequent misconduct in previous service, not less than six months,—and, in all cases of dishonesty, not less than twelve.
4. The conduct of the Task-women, Wards-women, and Overseers will be considered when they apply for any indulgence.
5. The testimony of the Superintendent, as to the character of any Female applicant for indulgence, who has been placed in the House of Correction, will be indispensable before her application can be considered.
6. No Female will be allowed to marry from the 2d. or 3d. Classes, nor, indeed, from the 1st., unless she can obtain a favourable certificate from the Principal Superintendent.
7. Every Female, except such as may be exempted by a certificate from the Medical Attendant, will be required to attend prayers both morning and evening, and divine service whenever performed in the Chapel.
8. One bible, together with such books as the Chaplain may recommend will be allowed to each mess, of which the Task-woman of the class shall have charge, and for the preservation of which she shall be held accountable.
9. No Officer or Servant of the Establishment shall supply any Female Convict with other provisions or comforts of any kind than those allowed by the Regulations. Neither is any clothing, nor other articles whatever, to be permitted to be delivered to any Convict in the House of Correction, nor are any letters or notes to be given them unless the same shall have been first opened and perused by the Superintendent, by whom they will be destroyed, if they be not from relatives or approved friends, and of a proper character and tendency.
Any person connected with the Establishment, who shall disobey the orders contained in this Regulation, if free, shall be immediately dismissed, and if a convict, shall be severely punished under the sentence of the Principal Superintendent.
10. No fires are to be allowed but such as are sanctioned by the Principal Superintendent, and he is to define the supply of fuel for the Superintendent, free Overseer, Porter, Constables, and others, according to the general Regulations of the Government.
11. No poultry, pigeons, or pigs shall be kept within the walls of the Establishment ; nor is smoking, on any acocunt, to be allowed.
12. It is to be distinctly explained by the Principal Superintendent to all the free Officers employed within the Establishment, and by the Superintendent, to all the Female Convicts on their admission, that the utmost cleanliness,—the greatest quietness,—perfect regularity,—and entire submission, are laid down as fundamental Laws of the Establishment ; and according to the degree of offending against any of them, punishment, of some kind is invariably to follow ;—if these be observed, patient industry will appear, and reformation of character must be the result.
13. The Rev. Mr. Norman will superintend the religious instruction of the Establishment occasionally during the week, and will perfom Divine Service at least once every Sunday ; and the resident Superintendent will at all times give facility to any arrangements proposed by the Chaplain for the more convenient assembly of the Women, provided, such arrangements do not militate against the established Regulations of the House of Correction.
14. A general inspection of the Establishment shall be made on the first Tuesday in every Month by a Committee, which shall be appointed by the Lieutenant Governor, when a general return of the Receipts and Expenditure shall be furnished, together with a Report exhibiting the number of Females received and discharged during the preceding Month, and a particular statement of their conduct, and the quantity of work performed. The observations of the Committee, or of any authorized Visitor, will be entered in a book kept open for that purpose,—(D).
By His Excellency's Command,
Colonnial Secretary's Office,
1st. January, 1829.
Prisoners were not allowed communication with people outside the factory while they were confined, as the following articles published in the Launceston Examiner show.
George Hart, a ticket holder in private service, was fined the other day £5, on complaint of the overseer of the female factory, for a breach of the Act for the regulation of prisons, in causing a letter to be I conveyed to one of the fair inmates. [14 July 1852]
A prisoner of the crown holding a ticket-of-leave was sentenced to four months’ imprisonment and hard labour, for being found in the chapel-yard attached to the Female Factory with intent to communicate with the prisoner women. [2 June 1847]